An Innovation Measurement Model Based on THIO Classification: An Automotive Case Study

Document Type: Original Manuscript


1 ESC Rennes School of Business, 2 Rue Robert d'Arbrissel, Rennes, France

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Many criteria have been presented so far for innovation measurement. Presenting the relation between input and output of innovation, completing other criteria and achieving more comprehensive criteria has also been raised. What is of vital importance is the right utilization of these criteria towards measuring innovation. This paper seeks to present a model to measure innovation that, in addition to the simplicity of its perception and measurement method, has an adequate comprehensiveness. The analyses are undertaken through two real case studies in automotive industry in Iran. The results show that Saipa automotive company should concentrate on Info-ware, Orga-ware and Human-ware while Iran-khodro automotive company needs to focus on Info-ware, Orga-ware and Techno-ware aspects to balance the innovation processes.


  • An innovation measurement model is developed.
  • A THIO model is utilized to analyze the level of innovation.
  • Two case studies in automotive industry in Iran are studied and compared.


Main Subjects

Adams, R., Bessant, J., & Phelps, R. (2006). Innovation management measurement: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 8(1), 21–47.

Altenburg, T., Bhasin, S., & Fischer, D. (2012). Sustainability-oriented innovation in the automobile industry: advancing electromobility in China, France, Germany and India. Innovation and Development, 2(1), 67–85.

Becheikh, N., Landry, R., & Amara, N. (2006). Lessons from innovation empirical studies in the manufacturing sector: A systematic review of the literature from 1993–2003. Technovation, 26(5), 644–664.

Brown, M. G., & Svenson, R. A. (1988). Measuring R&D Productivity. Research-Technology Management, 31(4), 11–15.

Cooper, R. G., & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (1995). Benchmarking the Firm’s Critical Success Factors in New Product Development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(5), 374–391.

Cruz-Cázares, C., Bayona-Sáez, C., & García-Marco, T. (2013). You can’t manage right what you can’t measure well: Technological innovation efficiency. Research Policy, 42(6), 1239–1250.

Dewangan, V., & Godse, M. (2014). Towards a holistic enterprise innovation performance measurement system. Technovation, 34(9), 536–545.

Flor, M. L., & Oltra, M. J. (2004). Identification of innovating firms through technological innovation indicators: an application to the Spanish ceramic tile industry. Research Policy, 33(2), 323–336.

Frishammar, J., Richtnér, A., Brattström, A., Magnusson, M., & Björk, J. (2018). Opportunities and challenges in the new innovation landscape: Implications for innovation auditing and innovation management. European Management Journal.

Garcia, R., & Calantone, R. (2002). A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19(2), 110–132.

Gunday, G., Ulusoy, G., Kilic, K., & Alpkan, L. (2011). Effects of innovation types on firm performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 133(2), 662–676.

Hipp, C., & Grupp, H. (2005). Innovation in the service sector: The demand for service-specific innovation measurement concepts and typologies. Research Policy, 34(4), 517–535.

Khalil-Timamy, M. H. (2002). Pursuing technology policy research in sub-Saharan Africa: reflections on the dimensions, applications, and implications of a methodological framework (No. 7). African Technology Policy Studies Network.

Klewitz, J., & Hansen, E. G. (2014). Sustainability-oriented innovation of SMEs: a systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 57–75.

Muller, A., Välikangas, L., & Merlyn, P. (2005). Metrics for innovation: guidelines for developing a customized suite of innovation metrics. Strategy & Leadership, 33(1), 37–45.

Nieves, J., & Quintana, A. (2018). Human resource practices and innovation in the hotel industry: The mediating role of human capital. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(1), 72–83.

OECD. (2015). Frascati Manual 2015, Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development, 44.

OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard. (1999). Benchmarking Knowledge-Based Economies, Annex 1, 106.

OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard. (2001). Towards a Knowledge-Based Economies, Annex 1.1, 13–139.

Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). (2005). Oslo Manual. Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data (3rd ed.). Paris: OECD publishing.

Rodríguez, A., Nieto, M. J., & Santamaría, L. (2018). International collaboration and innovation in professional and technological knowledge-intensive services. Industry and Innovation, 25(4), 408–431.

Romijn, H., & Albaladejo, M. (2002). Determinants of innovation capability in small electronics and software firms in southeast England. Research Policy, 31(7), 1053–1067.

Saunila, M. (2017). Innovation Performance Measurement: A Quantitative Systematic Literature Review. In European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship; Reading (pp. 596–601). Reading, United Kingdom, Reading: Academic Conferences International Limited. Retrieved from

Serrat, O. (2017). Harnessing Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace. In Knowledge Solutions (pp. 903–910). Springer, Singapore. Retrieved from

Suresh Kumar, S. (2000). Components of Science-Based Innovation Measurements and Their Links to Public Policies, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala, India. . Tnological Forecasting and Social Change, 64, 261–269.

Terleckyj, N. (1974). Effect of R&D on Productivity. Washington DC.: Natl. Plg. Association.

Terleckyj, N. (1980). Direct and Indirect Effects of Industrial R&D on the Productivity Growth of Industries, in New Developments in Productivity Measurement & Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The technology atlas team. (1987). A framework for technology based national planning. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 32(1), 5–18.

United  Nation’s  Economic  and  Social  Commission  for  Asia and the Pacific (Unescap) (1989), Technology Atlas Project: A Framework for Technology-Based Development, Banglore, India.

Zaltman, G., & Dubois, B. (1971). New Conceptual Approaches in the Study of Innovation. ACR Special Volumes, SV-01. Retrieved from