Determining the Best Combination of Perspective indicators of Balanced Scorecard by using Game Theory

Document Type : Original Manuscript


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Mathematics, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology, Golpayegan, Iran



Manufacturing performance measurement offers an appropriate program for future planning, controlling, and decision-making of organizations as well as determination of their present status. This paper aimed to assess a firm’s manufacturing performance using a reasonably comprehensive integrated BSC- Game model to empirically determine the importance of the perspectives and indicators under evaluation and the best combination of indicators A mathematical model was employed to determine the equilibrium among the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard (BSC) as four players in a cooperative game to specify the relationship among indicators in the strategy map of Esfahan Steel Complex Company. The GAMS optimization package was used to solve the model. The results suggest that the decision-makers of Esfahan Steel Company consider innovation, modern technologies, customer satisfaction, and equity profitability as the best combination of strategies and equilibrium point in the BSC. In fact, the proposed mathematical model successfully provided an equilibrium to minimize the costs and maximize the perspectives’ payoff of the BSC. The main contribution of this paper lies to the adaption of a game theory approach to performance measurement in the industrial sector that makes balancing in the BSC become more real

Graphical Abstract

Determining the Best Combination of Perspective indicators of Balanced Scorecard by using Game Theory


  • Proposing a new approach based on the balanced scorecard (BSC) and game theory.
  • Proposing a bi-objective mathematical model, based on Nash solution for a four-player game to specify the relationship among indicators in the strategy map.
  • Using the proposed model to determine the equilibrium point in the BSC, and to control the organizational costs.


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