Identifying the factors affecting consumer perceptions on product safety and model presentation (Case study: Home appliances consumers)

Document Type : Original Manuscript


1 Department of Business Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Business Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran, Iran



Product safety affects the health of the citizens of a society and improves the quality of life. Improved product safety will increase the competitive power, reduce warranty costs, and prevent the claims of liability and return of goods, compensation. Accordingly, the current study presents a conceptual model for the perception of product safety home appliances consumers. The research method in this study is the Mixed Method. This research is involved three Cognitive, Design, Evaluation Phases. Statistical Population is home appliances, consumers. Sampling in the quality phase is Targeted Sampling and in quantity phase, is systematic sampling. The cognitive phase began with library research and exploratory interviews were conducted with 20 academic experts of sales, exclusive representation, repair, and warranty of home appliances. In the design phase, using a structured questionnaire compatible with the interpretive structural modeling technique. Finally, in the quantitative model evaluation phase, a researcher-made questionnaire, suitable for structural equations using partial minimum squares, was used. The questionnaire was distributed among 384 consumers of home appliances. The fit indicators confirmed the fit of the theoretical model with the data. On the other hand, the significance level was 0.0001. Therefore, the model of perception of safety for home appliance consumers is accepted with 95% reliability. Designing a conceptual model for perception product safety of home appliances based on a comprehensive set of the effective factors, developing the theoretical literature in the field of the factors affecting consumer s perceived product safety, and presenting valuable results for academicians, marketing managers, and producers.

Graphical Abstract

Identifying the factors affecting consumer perceptions on product safety and model presentation (Case study: Home appliances consumers)


  • This paper develops a conceptual model for consumers perception product safety of home appliances based on a comprehensive set of influential factors.
  • The research method in this study is the Mixed Method based on Triangulation in Data. . We were using content Analysis for identify variables, and interpretive structural modeling to communicate  variables and structural equations using partial minimum squares with Lisarel software for evaluation model.
  • In the identification phase, a total of 380 factors were identified through reviewing the literature and in-depth interviews with home appliance experts. Based on the factors identified in the previous step, a questionnaire was designed using the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) technique and provided to the experts. Of 380 factors, the content validity of 297 factors was confirmed by the experts. Based on the literature review and expert opinions, 297 factors were identified and classified into 8 main categories and 41 sub-categories.
  • The fit indicators confirmed the fit of the theoretical model with the data. On the other hand, the significance level was 0.0001. Therefore, the model of perception of safety for home appliance consumers is accepted with 95% reliability.
  • Figures 1 and 2 indicate that Customer orientation and training, Seller-related factors, Instructions and labels, Sociocultural factors, Advertising and marketing, Demographic characteristics, Customer knowledge and awareness, Product-related factors affect safety perceptions of home appliance consumers.


Azar, Adel; Jalali,Reza; Khosravani,Farzaneh (2013);”Soft Oprational Research”;Industrial Management Institute,,First Publich,Tehran,Iran
Azimian,Alireza, Kilgour, Marc, Noori,hamid," Mitigating contagion risk by investing in the safety of rivals",European journal of operational research,000,2016, 10.1016/j.ejor.2016.04.051
Baumman, Florian; Friehe,Tim (2021);” Product Safety and Harm-Mitigation Incentives When Mitigation Lowers Consumption Benefits”;The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization;Vol.37;Issue1;pages198-237; 10.1093/jleo/ewaa011
Bearth,Angela; Siegrist,Michael (2019);" situative and product-specific factors influencing consumers risk perception of household cleaning products";Journal of Safety science;vol113;126-133, 10.1016/j.ssci.2018.11.023
Biu Tse, Alan ching," Factors Affecting consumer perceptions on product safety- the case of Nondurables",journal of international consumer marketing,vol 12(1),39-55(1999), 10.1300/J046v12n01_04
Blackler, A., Gomez,Rafael E; Popovic,Vesna;Thompson, Helen  (2016);" Life is too short to RTFM: how users relate to documentation and excess Features in consumer products";Interacting with computers,28(1),pp.27-46, 10.1093/iwc/iwu023
Bernard, C., John; M.Duke, Joshua; E.Albrecht, Sara (2018);" Do labels that cony minimal,redundant or no information affect consumer perceptions and willings to pay";Journal of food quality and preference;Vol.71;149-157, 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.06.012
Hernandez, C., Matthew,MD;J.Finniesgard,Eric;R.Anderson,BA,Joel;P.Mckenna,Nicholas,BS,MD;(2018);" Injury Patterns and mechanisms related to refrigerator and freezer utilization in the united states";American Journal of Emergency Medicine;
Cai,mingzhi; Seligsohn,Erin N; (2019); "Risk perception and product safety in user-centered Design"   31st International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology; August 18–21, 10.1115/DETC2019-98371
Chen,yongmin; Hua,Xinyu (2017);" competition,product safety,and product liability";Journal of law,Economics and organization;Vol.33(NO.2), 10.1093/jleo/ewx004
Reid, D., Irvin,F.Preusser, David," The Impact Of Alternative consumer education strategies on safety knowledge and behavior",(1983),Journal of the Academy of marketing science,fall1983,vol.11,No.4,382-403, 10.1007/BF02721922
Nganje, E., William; D.Burbidge,Linda;K.Denkyirah,Elisha;M.Ndembe,Elvis;(2021);” Predicting Food-Safety Risk and Determining Cost-Effective Risk-Reduction Strategies”; journal of Risk Financial Management;Vol.14(9);10.3390/jrfm14090408
Lesch, F., Mary;Patrick Rau,Pei-Luen;Choi,Yoonsun;" Effects of Culture(china VS us) and task on perceived hazard:Evidence from product ratings,label ratings,and product to label matching";Journal of Applied Ergonomics;52;2016, 10.1016/j.apergo.2015.06.010
Mangleburg, F., Tamara,Grewal, Dhruv,Bristol,terry," socialization,gender and adolescents self report of their generalized use of product lables",The journal of consumer affairs,vol.31,No.2,1997, 10.1111/j.1745-6606.1997.tb00391.x
Ghaffari,Sasan;HassanSadeghi,Naeini;Karmegam,Karuppiah;Aminreza,Shokouhi;Sabe,Beizaei;(2019);" Case Study: Sonic Effect of Product Set up on Perceived Quality:An Approach to home appliance design";Noise Control Engineering Journal,VOL.67(NO.5);PP.373-379, 10.3397/1/376732
Gök,Osman; Ersoy, Pervin;  Borühan ,Cülmüs (2020);" The effect of user manual quality on customer satisfaction:The mediating effect of perceived product quality";Journal of Product and Brand management;VOL.28(NO.4);PP.475-488,10.1108/JPBM-10-2018-2054
H.Behrens,Jorge,N.Barcellos,Maria,J.Frewer,lynn,T.P.Nunes,D.G.M.Franco,Bernadette,”Consumer Purchase Habits and Views Of Food Safety:A Brazilian Study”,Journal Food Control,Vol.21,2010,963-969, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.07.018
Hall,Alexandra; Ho, Catherine; keay, Lisa; Mc caffery, Kirsten; Hunter, Kate; Charlton, Judith L.; Bilston, Lynne; Hayen, Andrew; Brown, Julie; (2013);" Qualitative Consumer Input for Enhancing Child Restraint Product Information to Prevent Misuse: Preliminary Results";Proceedings of the 2016 Australasian Road safety Conference 6-8 september,Canberra,Australia
Han,yongming;cui,shiying;Geneg,zhiqiang;chu,chong;chen,kai;wang,yajie;(2019);" Food quality and Safety Risk Assessment using a Novel HMM method based on GRA";Journal of Food control;VOL.105(2019);180-189, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.05.039
Han,yongming;Cui,shiying;Geng,Zhiqiang;chu,chong;chen,Kai; Wang,Yajie;(2019)" Food quality and safety risk assessment using a novel Hmm method based on Gra;food control105;180,189, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.05.039
Hua,Xinyu; E.Spier, Kathryn (2020); "Product safety,Contract and liability";The Rand journal of economic,,vol.51,1; 10.1111/1756-2171.12311
Stoltman, J., Jeffrey and w.Morgan,fred,”Product safety,Information,and Behavior”,American behavioral scientist,vol 38,No.4,633-645,(1995), 10.1177/0002764295038004012
Kocatepe,Demet;Alkan,B.Barns;Keskin,irfan;Kaya,Yalgn;(2020);" Consumer perception of food safety of fried mussel Multiple correspondence analysis";Journal food and health,Vol.6,9-19, 10.3153/FH20002
Kotzegger,Ursula Haas;Schlegelmilch,Bodo B;" Conceptualizing consumers experiences of product-harm crises";Journal of consumer Marketing;Volume30;2;2013, 10.1108/07363761311304924
Lauraj,Holt;looby,Alison;(2017);" Factors that differentiate prescription stimulant misusers from at risk misuse Expectancies,perceived safety";Journal of substance use and Misuse;VOL.53(NO.7);1-8, 10.1080/10826084.2017.1392984 
LEE,Min jung;Yon, Myoungsoon;(2020);" Safety behaviors to reduce risk of using chemical Household products: An Application the risk perception attitude framework"; international Journal of Enviromental Research and public Health;  doi:10.3390/ijerph17051528, 10.3390/ijerph17051528
Lin,Xiaoyong;Cui,Shiying;Han,Yongming;Geng,zhiqiang;zhong,yanhua;(2019);" An improved ISM method based on GRA for hierarchical analyzing the influencing factor offood safety";Journal of food control;VOL.99(2019);48-56, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.12.020
Lisjak, Monika; Y.LEE,Angela;" The Bright side of impulse:Depletion Heightens self- protective behavior in the face of danger";Journal of consumer research;Volume41;June2014;55-70, 10.1086/674975
Liu,Feng;Rhim,Hosun;park,Kwangtage;Xu,Jian;K.Y.LO,Chris;(2021)” HACCP Certification in food industry:Trades-offs in product Safety and firm performance”; international journal of production Economics;Vol,231;January2021; 10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107838
Niven, M., Catherine;Mathews,Ben;E.Harrison,James;Vallmuar,Kirsten;(2019);" Hazardous Children s products on the Australian and us market 2011-2017:an empirical analysis of child related product safety";  Injury PreventionOnline(Online), pp. 1-7, doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043267,
Marucheck,Ann;Greis,Noel;Mena,Carlos;Cai,Linning;(2011);" Product safety and security in the global supply chain: Issues, challenges and research opportunities'; Journal of Operation Management; Vol.29;707-720, 10.1016/j.jom.2011.06.007
Miao,Weiwei," Risk Perception of food safety and behavioral intentions to read food safety lables",(2014).Graduate these and dissertations.paper14211
Nam,su-jung;(2019)" An application of the risk perception attitude framework in food safety behavior" ,Human and Ecological Risk Assessment An international journal Vol.25.(4);1034-1047, 10.1080/10807039.2018.1460193
Nardi,Vinicius;Teixeira,Rafael;Ladeira,Wagner;Santini,Fernando de oliveira;(2020);" A META-ANALYTIC Review of Food Safety Risk perception";Journal of Food control;VOL.112, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107089
Petre,leen;(1996)," Safety labels questioned:do they really reach the consumer?" ;international journal for consumer and product safety;vol.3;No.4;191,203,10.1080/09298349608945778
Laughery, R., Kenneth,S.Wogalter,Michael," AThree-Stage Model Summarizes Product Warning And Enviromental Sign Research",Journal Of Safety Science,Vol.61,2014,3-9, 10.1016/j.ssci.2011.02.012
Rausand,Marvin and Bouwer utne,Ingrid, "Product safety- principles and practices in a life cycle perspective",journal safety science,vol 47,939-947(2008), 10.1016/j.ssci.2008.10.004
Richard,Staelin," The effects of consumer education on consumer product safetybehavior",Journal of consumer research,vol 5,No.1,pp30-40(1978), 10.1086/208711
Roman,Dan;(2019)" Safety outside the Box,Going Beyond the Standard Specific to your Equipment";IEEE Symposium on product compliance Engineering(ISPCE);14-16 May; DoI:  10.1109/ISPCE.2018.8379263
Shaaban,Khaled;Maher,Amro;Singhapakd,Anusorn;(2019);" Effect of Vehicle Safety recalls on perception Towards other vehicles from the same country of origin";Journal of Traffic and transportation Engineering;Vol.6(NO.5);PP493-503,10.1016/j.jtte.2018.09.006
Siu,noel yee man and wong, hon-yan, (2002)"The impact of product-related factors on perceived product safety",Marketing intelligence and planning , vol 20,Iss 3 pp.185-194, 10.1108/02634500210428049
Velcovska,Sarka;(2018);" Generation Y Perception of product origin and its Labelling in the context of food quality and safety";Journal of Amfiteatru Economic;Vol.20(NO.47);PP.46-61,
Verdu,Abel;Millan,Rafael;Saavedra,Pedro;Sanjuan,Esther;Carrascosa Iruzubieta,Conrado;(2021);Does the Consumer Sociodemographic Profile Influence the Perception of Aspects Related and Not Related to Food Safety? A Study in Traditional Spanish Street Markets”;International journal of Enwiromental Research and Public Health;Vol18;9794;10.3390/ijerph18189794
Viscusi,W.Kip,O.Cavallo,Gerald,( 1994)," The Effect Of Product Safety Regulation On Safety Percautions", Journal Of Risk Analysis,Vol.14,No.6, 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1994.tb00061.x
Xin Wang Yingcheng,Xu Li Wang,Xiaobo Xu,Yong Chen, (2017)," Transmission of information about consumer product quality and safety:A Social media perspective",Information Discovery and Delivery,Vol.45,Iss 1 pp, 10.1108/IDD-10-2016-0035